Thursday, March 15

Methemoglobinemia causes - Methemoglobinemia symptoms

The occurrence of methemoglobinemia may be congenital (hereditary) and occurring in families or may be acquired due to exposure to certain chemicals, medicines or foods.

Causes of methemoglobinemia inheritance

In this inherited ailment there are two forms. In the first form both the parents may be carrying single culprit autosomal gene (recessive) and yet may not show any symptoms and are carriers. If the child receives the affected gene from both the parents then the ailment shows up.
There are again two types in this recessive inherited form of congenital cytochrome b5 reductase deficiency.
The type one (Type Ib5R deficiency) is also called erythrocyte cytochrome reductase deficiency.
It occurs when the erythrocytes (red blood cells) lack the methemoglobin reductase enzyme which is responsible for reducing ferric form of heme group into ferrous form.
Symptoms of type 1 methemoglobinemia are:
Bluish discoloration of skin

Type two (Type IIb5R deficiency) is also called generalised cytochrome reductase deficiency.
It occurs when the methemoglobin reductase enzyme deficient/absent in the body.
Symptoms of type 2 methemoglobinemia are:
Bluish discoloration of skin
Developmental delay
Mental retardation
Seizures
Failure in survival
Hemoglobin M disease is the second form of inherited methemoglobinemia.
Any one parent can pass on the ailment to the child and all the family members will have the ailment.
The defective autosomal dominant gene causes defects in the hemoglobin molecule itself.
Symptoms of hemoglobin M disease are:
Bluish discoloration of skin

Causes of acquired methemoglobinemia

This form is more common in occurrence in children and adults exposed to causative agents.
Though these agents may not affect each and every individual, newborn, infants, children, elders, persons with debilitating diseases and persons with sensitivity to these agents have greater chances for getting acquired methemoglobinemia.
Infants have underdeveloped NADH methemoglobin reductase mechanisms and any severe infection, especially of the gastrointestinal tract causes systemic buildup of oxidants and causes this affliction.
Persons with reduced

Chemicals and environmental agents as causes:
Aniline dyes
Aromatic amines
Fertilizers containing nitrates
Arsine
Butyl nitrite
Copper sulfate
Chlorates
Chlorobenzene
Organic nitrite and nitrates
Chromates
Exhaust fumes
Amyl nitrite
Dimethyltoluidine
Isobutyl nitrite
Naphthalene
Nitroaniline
Sodium nitrite
Nitrobenzene
Nitrofurans
Nitroglycerin
Nitrophenol
Nitrosobenzene
Nitroprusside
Resorcinol
Nitric oxide
Silver nitrate
Nitrogen dioxide
Trinitrotoluene

Drugs and pharmaceutical agents as causes of methemoglobinemia:
Acetaminophen
Acetanilid
Benzocaine
Chloroquine
Cyclophosphamide
Celecoxib
Flutamide
Lidocaine
Ifosfamide
Prilocaine
Primaquine
Phenazopyridine
Phenacetin
Rasburicase

Antibiotics as causes:
Dapsone
Nitrofurans
Sulfonamides

Foods as causes:
Food rich in nitrites
Food rich in nitrates
Well water with high concentrations of nitrite and/or nitrate
Symptoms of acquired methemoglobinemia are:
Bluish discoloration of skin
Fatigue and lack of energy
Headache and giddiness symptoms
Shortness of breath as symptoms
High levels of methemoglobinemia can be debilitating and life threatening.
Knowledge of causes and symptoms of methemoglobinemia is required for proper medical care and emergency therapy.
Related topics:
What is methemoglobinemia?
Methemoglobinemia treatments
Current topic: Methemoglobinemia causes and symptoms

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